Simulation Notes Europe, Volume 32(3), Special Issue ASIM SPL 2021, September 2022

Simulation-based Assessment of Energy Demand and Costs Associated with Production Scrap in the Battery Production

Simulation Notes Europe SNE 32(3), 2022, 143-150
DOI: 10.11128/


The shift in the mobility sector towards electric vehicles is responsible for a growth in the market demand for lithium-ion batteries. To follow this trend, the current 200 GWh global production capacity of lithium-ion batteries will present an annual increase of up to 300 GWh in the next years. Characterized by an energy-intensive process chain and high material costs, battery production is sensitive to production scrap rate. Current works on energy and cost assessment in battery production consider scrap rates based on static values derived from historical production data. Thus, there is a lack of works that dynamically analyse the influence of different scrap rates on the process chain, e.g. considering machine states and utilisation capacity. To tackle this challenge and contribute to more sustainable and competitive battery production, this work presents a simulation-based methodology to assess the indirect and direct energy demand and costs associated with production scrap.