Simulation Notes Europe, Volume 31(1), March 2021

Investigation on Stability Properties of Hierarchical Co-Simulation

Simulation Notes Europe SNE 31(1), 2021, 17-24
DOI: 10.11128/


This paper introduces the concept of hierarchical co-simulation and presents an investigation on stability properties of this method. In conventional co-simulation methods, all participating simulations are executed on the same level via one co-simulation. Hierarchical co-simulation, on the other hand, enables the introduction of several levels of co-simulation by allowing participating subsystems to consist of co-simulated systems themselves, thus nesting co-simulations within co-simulations. While on the one hand, certain stability issues can arise by the introduction of more co-simulation layers, this method enables the usage of different synchronization references for parts of the overall system according to varying dependencies between the subsystems, which can increase accuracy and numerical stability.