Simulation Notes Europe, Volume 28(4), December 2018

Modeling Arterial Wave Reflection with Difference Equations

Simulation Notes Europe SNE 28(4), 2018, 157-164
DOI: 10.11128/


A simple difference equation model is presented that describes the development of blood pressure in the ascending aorta over time. Reflections both at one and more sites in the arterial system as well as re-reflections of reflected waves at the heart are considered. Model parameters include reflection magnitude, pulse wave velocity, reflection site positions and heart rate. The model is discussed both analytically and numerically by implementation in MATLAB. Comparison of blood pressure curves generated by the model and blood pressure curves measured in patients demonstrates that the model is able to represent reality to some extent. Results can be improved by adding reflection sites which warrants further research.