In this paper, we present an overview of existing and ongoing developments in multirate and co-simulation. These are structured into thematical sections, providing general information on the state of the art while additionally allowing an impression of the progress in developments.
The first sections cover research on co-simulation of ODE and DAE systems, including different coupling methods along with comparisons and stability studies. This is followed by a description of standards for co-simulation, specific developments such as frameworks and investigations on hybrid co-simulation or partitioned methods. In conclusion, general strategies for the development and validation of coupling methods and summarized information on methods and challenges are given.