Algorithms, mathematics and art are interrelated in an art form called algorithmic art. Algorithmic art is visual art generated by algorithms that completely describe creation of images. This kind of art is strongly related with contemporary computer technology, and especially computer programming, as well as with mathematics used in algorithms for image generation. We first discuss two aspects of algorithmic art: the fact that it is based on rational approach of constructing algorithms, and that it involves a strong constraint that image has to be created by an algorithm. We are then describing mathematical influences to art during history, and especially in Renaissance and during the 20th century. Besides we present works of several artists influenced by mathematics and most notably work of M. C. Escher who attempted to visually express various mathematical concepts like infinity, recursion and self-similarity and studied the use of regular periodic divisions of a plane, convergence to a limit and various transformations of shapes. Then we are describing the main characteristics of algorithmic art as well as its most important proponents and their works, and make distinction between visualization of mathemati-cal objects and algorithmic art. Besides we discuss algorithmic art as the form of visual art notation and compare it with musical notation.